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Scientific Studies

Far less studies have been conducted on DPA compared to DHA and EPA because this fatty acid is difficult to find in good quantities, except for seal oil which contains approximately 4%. Learn more about the particularities of DPA and Seal Oil through these scientific articles.

  • Supports cardiovascular health
  • Enhances mental & cognitive health
  • Fights inflammation
  • Boosts immune system
  • Fetal & infant development
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  • Supports cardiovascular health
  • Enhances mental & cognitive health
  • Fights inflammation
  • Boosts immune system
  • Fetal & infant development

Scientific Studies

Learn more about the particularities of DPA and Seal Oil through these scientific articles.

 

  1. Ackman, R.G.; Marble, A.E. (1997). “Safety of seal oil as a nutritional supplement.” Nova Scotian Institute of Science 41(3) 103-114.  [ Dalhousie University Library / Download ]
  2. Aursnes, Marius et al. “Total synthesis of the lipid mediator PD1n-3 DPA: configurational assignments and anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions.” Journal of natural products vol. 77,4 (2014): 910-6. doi:10.1021/np4009865as [ NCBI / Download ]
  3. Bjørkkjaer, Tormod et al. “Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalized n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.” Lipids in health and disease vol. 5 6. 20 Mar. 2006, doi:10.1186/1476-511X-5-6 [ NCBI / Download ]
  4. Byelashov, Oleksandr A et al. “Dietary sources, current intakes, and nutritional role of omega-3 docosapentaenoic acid.” Lipid technology vol. 27,4 (2015): 79-82. doi:10.1002/lite.201500013 [ PubMed / Download ]
  5. Careaga, M M, and H Sprecher. “Synthesis of two hydroxy fatty acids from 7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid by human platelets.” The Journal of biological chemistry vol. 259,23 (1984): 14413-7. [ PubMed / Download ]
  6. Christensen, M S et al. “Lymphatic absorption of n – 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine oils with different intramolecular fatty acid distributions.” Biochimica et biophysica acta vol. 1215,1-2 (1994): 198-204. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(94)90111-2 [ PubMed]
  7. Choi, Myungwon et al. “Effects of Omega-3-Rich Harp Seal Oil on the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.” Preventive nutrition and food science vol. 20,2 (2015): 83-7. doi:10.3746/pnf.2015.20.2.83 [ NCBI / Download ]
  8. Dubey, Pratibha et al. “Diets Enriched in Fish-Oil or Seal-Oil have Distinct Effects on Lipid Levels and Peroxidation in BioF1B Hamsters.” Nutrition and metabolic insights vol. 4 7-17. 23 Mar. 2011, doi:10.4137/NMI.S6728 [ NCBI / Download ]
  9. Ghasemi Fard, Samaneh et al. “Comparison of the bioavailability of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) in the rat.” Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids vol. 90,1 (2014): 23-6. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2013.10.001 [ PubMed / Download ]
  10. Hiram, Roddy et al. “Resolvin D1 reverses reactivity and Ca2+ sensitivity induced by ET-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the human pulmonary artery.” American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology vol. 307,11 (2014): H1547-58. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00452.2014 [ PubMed / Download ]
  11. Holub, Bruce J et al. “Oral docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) is differentially incorporated into phospholipid pools and differentially metabolized to eicosapentaenoic acid in tissues from young rats.” Lipids vol. 46,5 (2011): 399-407. doi:10.1007/s11745-011-3535-3 [ PubMed / Download ]
  12. Kaur, Gunveen et al. “Short-term docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) supplementation increases tissue docosapentaenoic acid, DHA and EPA concentrations in rats.” The British journal of nutrition vol. 103,1 (2010): 32-7. doi:10.1017/S0007114509991334 [ PubMed / Download ]
  13. Kaur, Gunveen et al. “Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) down-regulates the expression of genes involved in fat synthesis in liver cells.” Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids vol. 85,3-4 (2011): 155-61. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2011.06.002 [ PubMed / Download ]
  14. Kaur, G., Molero, J., Weisinger, H., & Sinclair, A. (2013). Orally administered [14C]DPA and [14C]DHA are metabolised differently to [14C]EPA in rats. British Journal of Nutrition, 109(3), 441-448. doi:10.1017/S0007114512001419 [ Cambridge University Press / Download ]
  15. Lewis, Evan J H et al. “21 days of mammalian omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves aspects of neuromuscular function and performance in male athletes compared to olive oil placebo.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 12 28. 18 Jun. 2015, doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0089-4 [ PubMed / Download ]
  16. Lewis, Evan J H et al. “Effect of omega-3 supplementation on neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A 12-month pilot trial.” Neurology vol. 88,24 (2017): 2294-2301. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004033 [ PubMed / Download ]
  17. Mann, Neil J et al. “Effects of seal oil and tuna-fish oil on platelet parameters and plasma lipid levels in healthy subjects.” Lipids vol. 45,8 (2010): 669-81. doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3450-z  [ PubMed / Download ]
  18. Meyer, Barbara J et al. “Comparison of seal oil to tuna oil on plasma lipid levels and blood pressure in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects.” Lipids vol. 44,9 (2009): 827-35. doi:10.1007/s11745-009-3333-3 [ PubMed / Download ]
  19. Morin, Caroline et al. “Docosapentaenoic acid monoacylglyceride reduces inflammation and vascular remodeling in experimental pulmonary hypertension.” American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology vol. 307,4 (2014): H574-86. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00814.2013 [ PubMed / Download ]
  20. Morin, Caroline et al. “Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid monoglycerides are more potent than docosahexaenoic acid monoglyceride to resolve inflammation in a rheumatoid arthritis model.” Arthritis research & therapy vol. 17 142. 29 May. 2015, doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0653-y [ NCBI / Download ]
  21. Tsuji, Masako et al. “Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3) suppressed tube-forming activity in endothelial cells induced by vascular endothelial growth factor.” Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids vol. 68,5 (2003): 337-42. doi:10.1016/s0952-3278(03)00025-5 [ PubMed ]
Oil

Pure Omega-3 Oil

Seal oil is a complete source of Omega-3 (DPA + DHA + EPA) with optimized absorption given its mammalian molecular structure.

Seal OilSeal Oil

Seal Oil

Textile

Unique Natural Fur & Leather

Seal fur and leather is a very versatile textile used in multiple applications such as accessories, footwear, outerwear and home decor.

Seal Fur & LeatherSeal Fur & Leather

Seal Fur & Leather

Meat

Wild Canadian Meat

Seal meat represents an excellent source of protein and is high in iron, zinc, magnesium and vitamin B-12. This wild game meat is free from antibiotics and added hormones.

Seal MeatSeal Meat

Seal Meat

References