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Seal Oil Health Benefits Claims References

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Heart Health Omega-3 Research References

  • Ann C. Skulas-Ray,*, Michael R. Flock, Chesney K. Richter, William S. Harris, Sheila G. West 1,3 and Penny M. Kris-Etherton., Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation, Nutrients 2015, 7, 6390-6404; doi:10.3390/nu7085291
  • J Neubronner, JP Schuchardt, G Kressel, M Merkel, C von Schacky and A Hahn,Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz Universita, Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl esters, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 247–254
  • Lewis EJH, Perkins BA, Lovblom LE, Bazinet RP, Wolever TMS, Bril V. Effect of omega-3 supplementation on neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A 12-month pilot trial, Neurology. Epub 2017 May 17.
  • MCBURNEY, MICHEAL, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, EPA, DHA, and Heart Health,Omega-3 Fatty Acids, EPA, DHA, and Heart Health – 03 – 2013 – TalkingNutrition – DSM
  • Pratibha Dubey, Anura P. Jayasooriya* and Sukhinder K. Cheema,Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X9, Canada *Current Address: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka. Diets Enriched in Fish-Oil or Seal-Oil have Distinct Effects on Lipid Levels and Peroxidation in BioF1B Hamsters, Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 2011:4
  • Toshie Kanayasu-Toyoda, Ikuo Morita, Sei-itsu Murota,Department Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3),an elongation metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3), is a potent stimulator or endothelial cell migration on pretreatment in vitro, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (1996) 54(5), 319-325
  • Urabe , Y. et al., Dept. of Cardiovascular Medicine , Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima. Japan, Association Between Serum Levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Coronary Plaque Detected by Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients Receiving Statin Therapy, Circulation Journal (Japanese Circulation Society), in press , 2013

Joint Health Omega-3 Research References

  • Choi M, JuJ, Suh JS, Park KY, Kim KH. Effects of Omega-3-Rich Harp Seal Oil on the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages. Preventive nutrition and food science 2015;20:83-7.
  • Gan RW, BemisEA, DemoruelleMK, et al. The association between omega-3 fatty acid biomarkers and inflammatory arthritis in an anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive population. Rheumatology(Oxford) 2017;56:2229-36.
  • Miller, E., Kaur, G., Larsen, A., Loh, S. P., Linderborg, K., Weisinger, H. S., et al. (2013). A short-term n-3 DPA supplementation study in humans. Eur. J. Nutr. 52, 895–904. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0396-3
  • Morin C, Blier PU, Fortin S. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid monoglycerides are more potent than docosahexaenoic acid monoglyceride to resolve inflammation in a rheumatoid arthritis model. ArthritisResTher2015;17:142.
  • Morin C, Hiram R, Rousseau E, Blier PU, Fortin S. Docosapentaenoic acid monoacylglyceride reduces inflammation and vascular remodeling in experimental pulmonary hypertension. Am J PhysiolHeartCircPhysiol2014;307:H574-86.
  • Neil J . Mann, et al. Effects of seal oil and tuna-fish oil on platelet parameters and plasma lipid levels in healthy subjects, epub, 2010.
  • Skulas-Ray AC, Flock MR, Richter CK, Harris WS, West SG, Kris-Etherton PM. RedBlood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-DependentlyIncreasesFollowingn-3 FattyAcid Supplementation. Nutrients2015;7:6390-404.
  • ToshieKanayasu-Toyoda, et al. Docosapentaenoicacid(22:5, n-3), an elongationmetaboliteof eicosapentaenoicacid(20:5, n-3), is a potent stimulator of endothelial cell migration on pretreatment in vitro, 1996.
  • Wiese DM, Horst SN, Brown CT, et al. SerumFattyAcidsAre CorrelatedwithInflammatoryCytokines in UlcerativeColitis. PLoSOne 2016;11:e0156387.

Brain Health Omega-3 Research References

  • ALESSANDRI JM, GUESNET P, VANCASSEL S. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the central nervous system : evolution of concepts and nutritional implications throughout life. Reprod Nutr Dev 2004 ; 44 : 509-38.
  • BOURRE JM. Acides gras oméga-3 alimentaires et neuropsychiatrie. OCL 2004 ; 11 : 362-70.
  • Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, Hibbeln J. Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Feb 15;32(2):568-75. Epub 2007 Nov 1.
  • CHALON S. Acides gras polyinsaturés et fonctions cognitives. OCL 2001 ; 4 : 317-20.
  • Deacon G1, Kettle C1, Hayes D2, Dennis C2, Tucci J2.Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment of depression. Food Sci Nutr. 2017
  • GUESNET P, ALESSANDRI JM, ASTORG P, PIFFERI F, LAVIALLE M. Les rôles physiologiques majeurs exercés par les acides gras polyinsaturés (AGPI). OCL 2005 ; 12 : 333-43.
  • KYLE DJ. The role of docosahexaenoic acid in the evolution and function of human brain. New Comprehensive Biochem 2002 ; 35 : 1-22.
  • Lespérance, F., Frasure-Smith, N., St-André, É., Turecki, G., Lespérance, P., Wisniewski, S. R. (2010). The efficacy of omega-3 supplementation for major depression: A randomized controlled trialJournal of clinical Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi:10.4088/JCP.10m05966blu
  • Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, Altamura C, Neels H, Melt-zer HY: Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 1999; 85:275–291
  • Masoumi SZ1, Kazemi F2, Tavakolian S3, Rahimi A4, Oshvandi K5, Soltanian A6, Shobeiri F1.Effect of Citalopram in Combination with Omega-3 on Depression in Post-menopausal Women: A Triple Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Jan 2;57(1):212-223.
  • Miller, E., Kaur, G., Larsen, A., Loh, S. P., Linderborg, K., Weisinger, H. S., et al. (2013). A short-term n-3 DPA supplementation study in humans. Eur. J. Nutr. 52, 895–904. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0396-3
  • WAINWRIGHT PE. Dietary essential fatty acids and brain function : a developmental perspective on mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc 2002 ; 61 :61-9.

Prenatal Health Omega-3 Research References

  • Alireza Ostadrahimi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh, Mozhgan Mirgafourvand, Sina Yaghoubi,4 Elham Shahrisa, Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili, Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): A Systematic Review, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016 Nov; 18(11): e24690.
  • Bishop NA1,1, Leblanc CP, Dietary Intake of DHA and EPA in a Group of Pregnant Women in the Moncton Area. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2017 Feb 1:1-7. doi: 10.3148/cjdpr-2016-033. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Gould JF, Best K, Makrides M. Perinatal nutrition interventions and post-partum depressive symptoms. 2016 Dec 18. pii: S0165-0327(16)31113-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.014.
  • Juan Li, Huaixia yin, Douglas M. Bibus, Oleksandr A. Byelashov. The role of Omega-3 docosapentaenoic acid in pregnancy and early development. Euro Fed Lipid Highlights 2016.
  • Juber BA, Jackson KH, Johnson KB, Harris WS, Baack ML., Breast milk DHA levels may increase after informing women: a community-based cohort study from South Dakota USA. Int Breastfeed J. 2017 Jan 28;12:7. doi: 10.1186/s13006-016-0099-0. eCollection 2016.
  • Maria Makrides, Understanding the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)supplementation during pregnancy on multiple outcomes from the DOMInO trial, Published by EDP Sciences DOI: 10.1051/ocl/2015045 (2015)

Active Lifestyle Omega-3 Research References

  • ALEXANDER LEAF D, C RANAN RAUCH. Hypothesis: Omega-3 fatty acids and blood rheology: Implications for human aerobic performance. Ann Sports Med, 4(1): 32-36, 1988.
  • Evan J. H. Lewis, Peter W. Radonic, Thomas M. S. Wolever ,Greg D. Wells, 21 days of mammalian omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves aspects of neuromuscular function and performance in male athletes compared to olive oil placebo, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2015)
  • Huffman et al. “Effect of n-3 fatty acids on free tryptophan and exercise fatigue.” Eur J Appl Physiol 92:584-591 (2004).
  • Lachlan Hingley et al. DHA-rich Fish Oil Increases the Omega-3 Index and Lowers the Oxygen Cost of Physiologically Stressful Cycling in Trained Individuals. Human Kinetics Journal. Volume 27 Issue 4, August 2017.
  • LEGER C, C-Y GUEZENNEC, N KADRI HASSINI, P SATABIN. Les acides gras phospho-lipidiques membranaires au cours de l’effort physique de longue durée avec ou sans apport nutritionnel d’huile de poissons. Cah Nutr Diét, XXVII(2): 82-89, 1992
  • L Hingley et al. Low dose fish oil increases the omega-3 index improving cycling efficiency and heart rate recovery. J Sci Cycling. Vol. 3(2), 41 (2014)
  • Tartibian B, Maleki BH, Abbasi A. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation attenuates inflammatory markers after eccentric exercise in untrained men.Clin J Sports Med. (2011)
  • Zebrowska et al. “Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation improves endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake in endurance-trained athletes.” Eur J Sport Sci 15: 305-314 (2015).